Mongolia has a sharply continental climate, with long, cold, dry winters and brief, mild, and relatively wet summers. When Arctic air masses dominate in mid-winter, temperatures average -20°C to -35°C. In the Uvs Lake basin in northwestern Mongolia , known as one of the coldest places in all of Asia , the lowest temperature ever recorded is -58°C. By contrast, summer time temperatures in the Gobi desert climb as high as 40°C. Annual precipitation ranges from 600 mm in the Khentii, Altai, and Khuvsgul mountains to less than 100 mm in the Gobi . In some parts of the Gobi , no precipitation may fall for several years in a row. Mongolia has the 4 seasons of the year. There are summer, autumn, winter and spring.
Spring comes after a severe winter, days become longer, and nights shorter. It is the time for snow to melt and for animals to come out from hibernation. All animals and livestock breed while the soil thaws in the warm spring weather. In Mongolia "Khansh neekh" means some animals, which hibernated, awoke from their sleep. It is very different to the Chinese one. Spring is the prosperous season of the year when everybody is calm and relaxed; grass turns green, anemones grow up and nature covered with its green dress. Beginning in March spring usually lasts about 60 days although it can be as long as 70 days or as short as 45 days in some areas of the country. For people and livestock, it is also a harsh season of the driest and the most windy days although it gets warm in spring; livestock breed and gain their weight; and grass becomes green.
Summer is the warmest season in Mongolia . Generally, precipitation is higher in summer than any time of the year. Rivers and streams are at their fullest in summer. It is the time when pasture, grass and crops grow and livestock gain weight and fat. It is the most pleasant time with abundant dairy products and there are many feasts and holidays of happy people. In Mongolia , summer lasts about 110 days from the end of May until September. July is the warmest month of summer, it is 15°, and 20° C in mountainous areas of Khangai region, 20° and 25° C in the steppes and the highest temperature is between 32° and 35° C in Khangai and 40° and 41° C in Gobi . Sometimes it reaches 50° C in Gobi .
Autumn in Mongolia is the transition period from summer to winter and it has its own features and signs. There is less rainfall in autumn. Gradually it gets cooler and vegetables and grains harvested at this time. Pasture and forests become yellow. Flies die and livestock is fat and woolly in preparation for the winter. Autumn is an important season in Mongolia in order to prepare for winter; harvesting the crops, vegetables and fodder; getting ready their cattle barns and sheds; preparing firewood and warming up their homes and so on. Autumn lasts about 60 days from the beginning of September until the early November. In some years, there are many long and sunny days in autumn.
In Mongolia , winter is the most severe, the coldest and longest season. All rivers, lakes, streams and ponds freeze in winter. It snows throughout the country, but not heavily. After making all the necessary preparations for a long winter, herdsmen stay at their winter camps. Winter starts early in November and lasts about 110 days until March. Sometimes it snows in September and November, but the heavy snow usually occurs at the beginning of November. January is the coldest winter month in Mongolia and the mean temperature is -35°C in Khangai mountain regions, -15°C in Gobi and -20°C and -25°C in the other parts of the country. However, -10°C in Europe means -20°C in Mongolia.